with DM, and effective exposure may occur before the
eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. Mild cough and
presence of the smoke is suspected. If the mask is put
soreness in the chest and moderate irritation of the
on after this minimal exposure, symptoms will increase
exposed skin are occasionally seen. Splashes of liquid
for several minutes in spite of adequate protection. As
in the eye are extremely painful and cause mineral acid
consequence, the victim may believe his mask is
burns with corneal erosions. Liquid FS on the skin may
ineffective and may remove it, thus causing himself to
cause painful acid burns.
be further exposed.
(c) HC smoke in high concentrations
produces an immediate sense of suffocation and
irritation of the nose and throat, coughing, and choking.
(5) Self-aid: Put on the mask and wear it in
Prolonged exposure to low concentrations causes an
spite of coughing, sneezing, salivation, and nausea. Lift
elevation of temperature.
the mask from the face briefly if necessary to permit
vomiting or to drain saliva from the facepiece. Carry on
duties as vigorously as possible; this will help to lessen
Wear the mask in all
and shorten the symptoms.
Medical treatment is
concentrations of FM smoke. Wash any liquid splash
seldom necessary since recovery is usually prompt.
off the skin with water. If spray or liquid splash has
c. Screening Smokes.
entered the eye, forcibly open the eye and flush with
water from the canteen or eye-wash station. Report for
(1) FM. FM (Titanium tetrachloride) is a
medical attention when the situation permits.
corrosive, heavy, colorless liquid which decomposes on
contact with moist air, yielding a dense white smoke. It
Wear the mask in all
is so unpleasant to breathe that dangerous exposure is
concentrations of FS smoke. If the skin is splashed with
liquid FS, wash off at once with water. If liquid FS gets
into the eye, forcibly hold the eye open and flush with
(2) FS. FS (Sulfur trioxide-Chlorsulfonic acid
water from the canteen or eye-wash station, and report
solution) is a heavy, strongly acid liquid which, when
for medical treatment as soon as the situation permits.
dispersed in air, absorbs moisture to form a dense,
white fog consisting of small droplets of hydrochloric
3-3. CHEMICAL GROUP C MUNITIONS
and sulfuric acids.
a. Chemical Group C. This group consists of WP
(3) HC. HC (Mixture of grained aluminum,
and PWP for all practical purposes, They are both
zinc oxide, and hexachloroethane). On burning the HC
screening smokes and incendiaries. They are very
mixture, zinc oxide is produced, which rapidly absorbs
brittle and the exploding of the munition in which they
moisture from the air to form a grayish white smoke.
are used causes them to be broken into small particles
The more humid the air, the more dense the smoke.
which burn very rapidly.
(1) WP (White phosphorous) is a pale yellow,
waxy solid which inflames spontaneously on contact
(a) FM smoke irritates the nose and
with air to give a hot, dense, white smoke.
throat, but dangerous exposure is unusual. Spray
droplets can be injurious to the eyes but seldom cause
(2) PWP (Plasticized white phosphorous) is a
corneal injury. Liquid splashes can cause acid burns of
the skin and severe eye injury including corneal erosion.
spontaneously on contact with air to give a hot, dense,
(b) FS smoke exposure can cause
inflammation of the eyes, respiratory tract, and skin.
b. Symptoms. WP and PWP smoke in field
The symptoms are usually limited to a prickling
concentrations is harmless although
sensation of the skin, but exposure to heavy
concentrations or long exposures to ordinary field
concentrations, may result in severe irritation of the