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CHEMICAL GROUP B MUNITIONS
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TM-9-1300-277 Demilitarization/Disposal of Conventional Munitions Manual
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Screening Smokes
TM 9-1300-277
(3) CNS is CN solution in chloropicrin and
(6) Self aid.  Put on the protective mask,
chloroform. CNB is a solution of CN in benzene and
clear it, and keep the eyes open as much as possible.
carbon tetrachloride (10: 45: 45 respectively).
When vision clears, carry on with duties. When it is
safe to do so, remove the mask and blot away the tears,
(4) CS  (o-chlorobenzalmalononitrile)  is  a
but do not rub the eyes.  If liquid or solid agent has
white crystalline solid and is stable under ordinary
entered the eye (not usually the case), try forcibly to
storage conditions. CS melts at 194oF (900C); it may
hold the eye open and flush with water from the canteen
also be used in liquid form in an appropriate solvent.
or eye-wash station.
The chest symptoms after
CS has a pungent pepper-like odor and the cloud is
exposure to CS can be relieved merely by talking.
white at time of release.  CS is faster acting, more
Persons with eye or skin burns should report for medical
potent and less toxic than CN; its effectiveness is
treatment as soon as possible.
approximately ten times that of CN.
CS1 is a
micropulverized powder. CS2 is modified CS1 treated
b. Sternutators (Vomiting Agents).
with liquid silicone, resulting in increased fluidity and
(1) DA (diphenylchloroarsine) is a crystalline
persistence.
solid.  When concentrated, DA smoke is white; it is
(5) Symptoms following exposure are as
colorless when diluted with air. It is dispersed as a fine
follows:
particulate smoke by heat.
(a) CA and CN (or CNS/ CNB).  The
(2) DC (diphemylcyanoarsine) is a crystalline
vapors and smokes of these agents cause basically the
solid.  When concentrated, DC smoke is white; it is
same reaction as does CS. However, their toxicity is
colorless when diluted with air. It is dispersed as a fine
generally higher and their effectiveness as tear agents is
particulate smoke by heat.
generally lower than CS. Thus, higher concentrations of
(3) DM (diphenylaminochlorarsine) is also
CN and CA are required to produce an equivalent effect
known as Adamsite; it is a crystalline solid. This is the
to that of CS. Recovery is quick if exposure is brief, but
most commonly used vomiting agent. It is dispersed by
in prolonged exposures mild inflammation of the eyes
heat, in a fine particulate smoke which is canary yellow
and some light-intolerance may occur. Do not rub the
when concentrated. It is colorless when diluted with air.
eyes. There may also be a moderate sense of irritation
(4) Symptoms: Low concentrations of these
in the nose and a stinging sensation of the skin,
agents are effective and may not be detectable at the
particularly in hot weather. Droplets of liquid or particles
time of exposure. Vomiting agents produce a feeling of
of solid in the eyes are corrosive and produce burns
pain and a sense of fulness in the nose and sinuses,
resembling those of strong acids. The liquid on the skin
accompanied by a severe headache, intense burning in
or clothing may cause superficial skin burns near body
the throat, tightness and pain in the chest, and irritation
folds, especially in hot weather, and sometimes may
of the eyes.  Coughing is uncontrollable; sneezing is
cause vomiting.
violent and persistent.
Nasal secretion is greatly
(b) CS.  CS may cause irritation and
increased and quantities of ropy saliva flow from the
stinging of the skin, especially the face, neck, ears, and
mouth. Nausea and vomiting are prominent.  Mental
body folds. Stinging may occur even at moderately low
depression may occur during the progression of
Higher  concentration  may  cause
symptoms. Mild symptoms, caused by exposure to very
dermatitis and, rarely, blisters on some body areas. The
low concentrations, resemble those of a severe cold.
stinging normally subsides after 6 to 10 minutes, even
The onset of symptoms may be delayed for several
with continued exposure. An increase in stinging may
minutes after initial exposure, especially
be noted when the individual is removed to fresh air.
Even if this occurs, permanent damage is unlikely.
3-3

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