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BLOOD AGENTS
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TM-9-1300-275-2 Chemical Agents and Decontaminating Procedures Manual
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Section 3 CHEMICAL DECONTAMINANTS: PREPARATION AND USE
TM 9-1300-275/2
b. Inhalations  of  high  concentrations  cause
a. When decontaminating fabrics, leather, and
dizziness,  vomiting,  dry  mouth,  blurred  vision,
canvas, use a 5-percent solution (5 pounds caustic soda
confusion, and the inability to respond effectively or
to 12 gallons of water).
move about. If untreated, symptoms may last up to 4
b. Wear  protective  gloves  and  mask  when
days before gradual return to normal.
handling these solutions.
2-7.5.4 First-Aid.
c. Caustic soda corrodes aluminum, tin, and zinc.
a. Wash contaminated skin with soap and water.
d. When mixing, add the soda to the water (not the
Flush the eyes with clean water. Contaminated clothing
water to caustic soda) to prevent boiling and splattering
should be wetted with water and removed.
because of excessive heat formed when dissolving the
b. Personnel exposed to BZ cannot sweat so that
caustic.
immediate and vigorous cooling, as for a heat stroke,
must be performed.
2-7 INCAPACITATING AGENT.
c. Move into fresh air immediately; maintain close
2-7.1 Symbol (BZ).
observation and restrictive care to prevent the victim
2-7.2 Description.
from injuring himself or others.
BZ is a solid, persistent chemical agent which affects
the brain, causing temporary physical and mental
2-7.5.5 Fire Protection. If munition is involved in a fire,
confusion when inhaled. Normally, it does not seriously
it may function as designed and disseminate the agent.
endanger life or cause permanent injury. It is packed in
munitions as a white or offwhite powder.
2-7.6 Detection.
BZ is packed (in powdered form) in munitions and is
2-7.3 Use.
white or off-white. At present, no reliable field test for
BZ agents are used to produce limited-time, delayed-
detection is available.
action incapacitation of personnel. There is eventually a
2-7.7 Decontamination.
complete recovery. These agents are used in burning
2-7.7.1  Before starting decontamination, pack up all
type ordnance to disseminate the aerosol.
visible BZ and put it in plastic bags. Seal these bags in
the M494, or similar container, for shipment.
2-7.4 Characteristics.
2-7.7.2 BZ can be removed by scrubbing or drenching
BZ is a solid and packed in munitions in micro-
with a solution of .5- to 1-percent nonionic detergent or
pulverized powder.
These particles can become
5-percent acetic acid solution.
(This solution will
suspended in air, and, in dry areas, can remain for an
remove but will not detoxify the agent; the drainage
indefinite time.
must  be  contained  for  treatment  and  disposal.)
Treatment
of
the
wash
solution
from
the
2-7.5 Safety Precautions.
decontaminating operation will normally be handled at a
2-7.5.1 Portal of Entry Into Body. By inhalation of the
depot by mixing with 5- to 15-percent caustic solution,
particles.
maintaining a caustic for 1 hour at ambient temperature
2-7.5.2 Protection Required. Protective mask only.
with more time at a lower temperature.
2-7.5.3 Symptoms (In Order of Appearance). Effects
will begin to become evident 30 to 60 minutes after
2-8 SUMMARY.
exposure. Its maximum effect is within 4 to 8 hours.
Characteristics of the foregoing chemical agents are -
a. Small doses of BZ cause an increased heart
summarized in Table 1 of Appendix A.  For each
rate, dry skin and mouth, increased eye pupil size, and
chemical agent, the recommended decontaminants are
increased skin temperature.
listed in order of preference in Table 2 of Appendix A.
11

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