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CHOKING AGENTS
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TM-9-1300-275-2 Chemical Agents and Decontaminating Procedures Manual
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INCAPACITATING AGENT
TM 9-1300-275/2
c. DS-2 will cause a fire upon contact with dry
HTH-HTB or STB.
for CK-agent vapors as mask filters deteriorate rapidly in
2-5.7.2 Caustic Soda Solution (Sodium Hydroxide; Lye).
strong concentrations of CK.
Use impermeable
Prepare a 10-percent concentration by mixing 10
protective clothing for the liquid agents.
pounds of caustic soda with 12 gallons of water. Leave
2-6.5.3
Symptoms.
Exposure to AC causes an
the solution on the contaminated surface for 30 minutes,
immediate increase in the breathing rate.  This is
then wash off and test for any remaining contamination.
followed by violent convulsions within 30 seconds and
a. When decontaminating fabrics, leather, and
cessation of breathing within 1 minute.  Moderate
canvas, use a 5-percellt solution (5 pounds caustic soda
exposure causes immediate dizziness, nausea, and
to 12 gallons of water).
headache followed by convulsions and coma. CK has
b. Wear  protective  gloves  and  mask  when
similar reactions: It also irritates the eyes, nose, and
handling this solution.
throat and causes coughing.
c. Caustic soda corrodes aluminum, tin, and zinc.
2-6.5.4 First-Aid. If exposed to blood agents, move into
d. When mixing, add the caustic soda to the water
fresh air immediately. Then crush two ampuls of amyl
(not water to caustic soda) to prevent boiling and
nitrate and hold them close to the nose. Repeat every
splattering because of excessive heat formed when
few minutes until eight ampuls have been used.
dissolving the caustic.
Administer artificial respiration to victim, if necessary.
Get medical aid immediately for injections of sodium
2-6 BLOOD AGENTS
nitrate and sodium thiosulfate.
Seek rest, keep
2-6.1 Symbol and Name.
comfortably warm, and drink liquids.
a. (AC) Hydrogen Cyanide.
2-6.6 Detection.
b. (CK) Cyanogen Chloride.
Use the chemical agent detector kit ABC-M18A2: For
AC, the red-band detector tube; for CK, the blue-band
2-6.2 Description.
detector tube.  AC has an odor like that of bitter
Blood agents are colorless gases or liquids that are
almonds. CK irritates the eyes, nose, and throat.
normally nonpersistent, quick-acting, toxic, chemical
agents. They are absorbed into the body, primarily, by
2-6.7 Decontamination.
breathing, and prevent transfer of oxygen from blood to
Solutions are listed in order of preference for effective
body.
decontamination of liquid agent in the shortest time.
Normally, aeration or venting is suitable for the agent
2-6.3 Use.
vapors.
These are quick-acting casualty agents used in mortar
2-6.7.1 DS-2 (Decontaminating Solution No. 2). This is
shells and artillery shells.
the recommended decontaminant for small quantities of
agent because it is a ready-to-use solution that does not
2-6.4 Characteristics.
require any mixing. However, it requires relatively large
a. Boiling Point: (AC) is 79 ; (CK) is 59 .
F
F
quantities of DS-2 to neutralize the agent.  Only one
b. Freezing Point: (AC) is 7 ; (CK) is 23 .
F
F
application on the contaminated surface is required.
c. Vapor Density (Compared with Air): (AC) is .93;
After a 30-minute wait, flush off with water and test for
(CK) is 2.1.
any remaining contamination.
d. Liquid Density (Compared with Water):  (AC)
a. Wear  protective  gloves  and  mask  when
is.7; (CK) is 1.2.
handling this solution.
e. Duration of Effectiveness: Agents are highly
b. Do not allow DS-2 to contact the voicemitter-
volatile; therefore, they have a duration of only 1 to 10
outlet valve in the M17 protective mask.  DS-2 will
minutes.  As a vapor, AC is lighter than air and will
destroy the mylar in this valve immediately upon
disperse rapidly.  CK may remain in low places or
contact.
confined areas.
c. DS-2 will cause a fire upon contact with dry
HTH-HTB or STB.
2-6.5 Safety Precautions.
2-6.7.2  Caustic Soda Solution (Sodium Hydroxide;
2-6.5.1 Portal of Entry Into Body. By inhalation of the
Lye). Prepare a 10-percent concentration by mixing 10
vapors. These vapors are highly irritating to the eyes,
pounds of caustic soda with 12 gallons of water. Leave
nose and throat.
the solution on the contaminated surface for 30 minutes,
2-6.5.2 Protection Required. Use a protective mask for
then wash off and test for any remaining contamination.
the AC-agent vapors. Use the M20 oxygen breathing
apparatus or M15 compressed air breathing apparatus
10

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