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SAFETY AT DEMILITARIZATION/DISPOSAL AREAS
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TM-9-1300-277 Demilitarization/Disposal of Conventional Munitions Manual
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Table 2-1. Weather and Time Factors for Disposal of Chemical Munitions
TM 9-1300-277
disposed of in a single operation whenever possible. In
The pit will be a minimum of 1.2 meters (four feet) deep
disposal
operations
completed
by
detonation,
and the item to be destroyed covered with 0.6 meters
consideration should be given to utilizing items with a
(two feet) or more of earth. Pits are not required when
high explosive content to enhance efficiency and cost
disposal takes place on a bombing range.  If pits or
effectiveness.  Mixing of bulk explosives will not be
similar aids are not used to limit fragments, cautions will
permitted during burning operations.
be taken to protect personnel and equipment. The use
of a pit or barricade or other means of confinement is
m. Some munitions are comparatively difficult to
mandatory where ranges do not have 732 meters (2400
explode; therefore, a search of the area will be made
feet) of clearance.
after each detonation for any munition that has not been
detonated.  Use caution when investigating post-firing
g. Where operations require the use of a personnel
results. Misfired charges may be present even though
shelter, the shelter will be located at the appropriate
the shot appeared to be normal.
inhabited building distance for the quantity/type of
materials being detonated, but in no case less than 91
n. Inert filled items will not be disposed of or
meters (300 feet) from the disposal site. The shelter
released for sale as scrap metal until internal fillers are
shall afford substantial fragment-proof overhead cover
exposed and unconfined.  Heat generated during a
and frontal protection.
reclamation operation can cause the filler, moisture and
air to expand and burst sealed casings.  Venting or
h. Tools and equipment to be used during disposal
exposure may be accomplished in any way necessary to
operations will be afforded protection to prevent
preclude rupture due to confined pressure.
damage. Safety equipment/clothing will be readily
available but must be protected from damage.
2-4. DEMILITARIZATION OF CHEMICAL MUNITIONS
i. Fire prevention is an integral part of any
a. Chemical munitions will be destroyed in an open
munitions disposal operation. At locations where a high
space (preferably on a hilltop) and there should be no
fire hazard exists, such factors as weather and local
woods or heavy brush that might trap the vapors or
environmental conditions become critical. When the fire
aerosols generated close to the operation, especially in
department is contacted, the local fire hazard potential
the downward direction.
will be evaluated and a determination made as to
b. Factors  influencing  Disposal  of  Chemical
additional protective measures necessary to ensure
Munitions:
The following factors will be carefully
effective  fire  prevention.
If  adequate  fire
considered when disposing of munitions containing
preventive/protective  measures  cannot  be  taken,
chemical agents. See table 2-1.
demilitarization/disposal  operations  will  not  be
(1) Temperature and pressure. Under normal
conducted.
temperature and pressure, chemical agents may exist
j. Firefighting equipment will be present at the
physically as solids, liquids, or gases.  The physical
scene to combat grass, brush, or equipment fires. Type
state in which an agent normally exists determines to
of equipment and any additional protective measures
some extent its tactical use, its effective duration, its
necessary in high fire risk areas/periods will be
physiological action, the type of munition used for its
coordinated with the Base Fire Marshall.
dispersion and the disposal procedure for the chemical
k. All disposal operations will be conducted in
agent and the explosive components.  The chemical
accordance with approved SOP's, DMWR's, and this
evaporates or becomes a gas more rapidly as the
manual.
temperature increases. If the temperature can be raised
high enough, thermal decomposition may result.
l. Disposal actions will be completed in the safest
most expeditious, and cost effective manner available at
a particular disposal site.
Items with compatible
characteristics and similar disposal methods should be
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