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Duration of Effectiveness.
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TM-9-1300-275-2 Chemical Agents and Decontaminating Procedures Manual
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Detection
TM 9-1300-275/2
SECTION 2
CHEMICAL AGENTS AND DECONTAMINATING PROCEDURES
2-1 GENERAL.
2-2.1 Symbol and Name.
Chemical agents are classified according to their tactical
use and physiological effects. They are also grouped
a. (GA) Tabun.
according to their storage and shipment characteristics.
b. (GB) Sarin.
c. (GD) Soman.
2-1.1 Classification (According to Use).
2-2.2 Description.
Chemical  agents  are  classified
according
to
physiological effects as follows:
These agents are brown liquids at field purity with
consistency similar to that of water and they give off a
a. Toxic Chemical Agents (Casualty Agents).
colorless vapor. They are nonpersistent, highly toxic,
Agents capable of producing serious injury or death
quick-acting chemicals that cause muscular spasms.
when used in field concentrations.
Excessive exposure to lethal dosage may result in death
b. Incapacitating Agents.  Agents that produce
within 1 to 10 minutes.
temporary physiological or mental effects, or both,
rendering individuals incapable of concerted effort in the
2-2.3 Use.
performance of their assigned duties.
c. Other Agents. Other chemical agents are riot
These are quick-acting casualty agents used in artillery
control  agents,  screening  and  signaling  smokes,
shells, bombs, sprays, or rockets.
incendaries.
2-2.4 Characteristics of G Series Agents.
2-1.2
Grouping  (According
to
Storage
and
Shipment Characteristics).
a. Boiling point is above 290F.
b. Freezing point is below -50 .
F
Chemical agents and hazardous chemicals with similar
c. Vapor density (compared with air) is more than
storage and shipment characteristics are grouped as
4.0.
follows:
d. Liquid density (compared with water) is more
than 1.02.
2-1.2.1  Group A includes all toxic chemical agents,
especially  blister  and  nerve  agents,  for  which
e. Duration of effectiveness: Evaporates at about
impermeable protective clothing and protective mask
the same rate as water.
are required.
f. Action on metal is slightly corrosive.
2-1.2.2 Group B comprises incapacitating agents and
2-2.5 Safety Precautions.
toxic (including blood and choking) for which the
protective mask alone is required. Included are burning
2-2.5.1 Portal of Entry Into Body.
and non-burning screening smokes and burning and
nonburning riot-control agents.
a. By inhalation of the vapors.
b. By liquid or vapor contact with the skin or
2-1.2.3
Group C consists of the spontaneously
through any body opening.
flammable agents. They include white phosphorus and
plasticized white phosphorous.
2-2.5.2  Protection Required.  A protective mask and
impermeable protective clothing.
2-1.2.4  Group D consists of all readily flammable
materials, such as burning mixtures of incendiaries, oils,
2-2.5.3 Symptoms. The first indication of exposure to a
and solvents.
G-series agent may be a reaction at the point of contact
(such as localized sweating, muscular twitching, or
2-1.2.5 Miscellaneous Chemicals involve all chemicals
pinpointing of eye pupils).
For mild exposures,
that do not fall under Group A through D.  They are
symptoms may not progress beyond the local reaction;
chemical decontaminants, industrial compressed gases,
however, if exposure is severe, the following symptoms
corrosive liquids, and hazardous chemicals.
can be expected, the number and severity of which will
be determined by the degree of exposure.
2-2 NERVE AGENTS. (G-Series).
5

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